Tag Archives: Jackson List

Jackson List: Judge Jon O. Newman’s Jackson Lecture, Chautauqua Institution, August 16th

I am very pleased to report that the Honorable Jon O. Newman, United States Circuit Judge, U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, will deliver Chautauqua Institution’s 13th annual Robert H. Jackson Lecture on the Supreme Court of the United States, on Wednesday, August 16, 2017, at 4:00 p.m. in Chautauqua’s Hall of Philosophy.

Judge Newman is a giant of the U.S. judiciary.  In 1971, President Nixon appointed Jon Newman to serve as a U.S. District Judge in the District of Connecticut.  In 1979, President Carter elevated Judge Newman to the U.S. Court of Appeals, where he has served since then, including as Chief Judge from 1993-1997.  At the U.S. Supreme Court earlier this year, Judge Newman received for lifetime judicial achievement the very prestigious Devitt Award.

Judge Newman also had many accomplishments before his judicial career, including:  graduate of Princeton University and Yale Law School; a veteran of the U.S. Army Reserve; law clerk to Judge George Washington of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit; law clerk to Chief Justice Earl Warren at the Supreme Court; aide to Abraham Ribicoff as Governor of Connecticut, Secretary of Health, Education & Welfare, and U.S. Senator; attorney in private practice in Hartford; and U.S. Attorney for the District of Connecticut.

Judge Newman’s lecture title will be, “The Supreme Court—Then and Now.”

Chautauqua Institution is a special venue of arts, education, and recreation in western New York State.  Chautauqua was a very significant part of Robert H. Jackson’s life, his broad and self-directed education, his public speaking training and experiences, and his thinking.  (For an earlier Jackson List post on Chautauqua Institution, click here.)

The Jackson Lecture at Chautauqua Institution is a leading annual consideration of the Supreme Court of the United States, on which Justice Robert H. Jackson served from 1941-1954, in the weeks following the completion of the Supreme Court’s annual Term.  Chautauqua’s Jackson Lecturers have been:

  • 2005:  Geoffrey R. Stone, University of Chicago professor;
  • 2006:  Linda Greenhouse, New York Times writer and Yale Law School professor;
  • 2007:  Seth P. Waxman, WilmerHale partner and former Solicitor General of the United States;
  • 2008:  Jeffrey Toobin, staff writer at The New Yorker and CNN senior legal analyst;
  • 2009:  Paul D. Clement, Bancroft PLLC partner and former Solicitor General of the United States;
  • 2010:  Jeff Shesol, historian, communications strategist, and former White House speechwriter;
  • 2011:  Dahlia Lithwick, senior editor at Slate;
  • 2012:  Pamela Karlan, Stanford University professor;
  • 2013:  Charles Fried, Harvard University professor and former Solicitor General of the United States;
  • 2014:  Akhil Reed Amar, Yale University professor (click here for video);
  • 2015:  Laurence H. Tribe, Harvard University professor (click here for video); and
  • 2016:  Tracey L. Meares, Yale University professor (click here for video).

For further information on Judge Newman’s upcoming lecture, click here.

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Judge Newman’s Jackson Lecture will culminate, at Chautauqua Institution this summer, extensive, expert consideration of the U.S. Supreme Court.

During Chautauqua’s Week Five (July 24-28), the Amphitheater lecture theme will be “The Supreme Court: At a Tipping Point?”  The 10:45 a.m. lecturers will be:

  • July 24:  Linda Greenhouse;
  • July 25:  Annette Gordon-Reed;
  • July 26:  Jeffrey Rosen;
  • July 27:  Akhil Reed Amar; and
  • July 28:  Theodore B. Olson.

The afternoon programs that week will feature the following lecturers, focusing on judicial lives and biography:

  • July 24:  Linda Greenhouse, on Chief Justice Warren E. Burger;
  • July 25:  Annette Gordon-Reed & Peter Onuf, on Chief Justice John Marshall;
  • July 26:  Jeffrey Rosen, on Justice Louis D. Brandeis; and
  • July 28:  John Q. Barrett, on Justice Robert H. Jackson & His Brethren.

For further information on all of this programming, to buy tickets, etc., please visit Chautauqua Institution’s website (click here).

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This post was emailed to the Jackson List, a private but entirely non-selective email list that reaches many thousands of subscribers around the world. I write to it periodically about Justice Robert H. Jackson, the Supreme Court, Nuremberg and related topics. The Jackson List archive site is http://thejacksonlist.com/.  To subscribe, email me at barrettj@stjohns.edu. Thank you for your interest, and for spreading the word.

Jackson List: Supreme Court “Opinion Dumping,” 1950 & Today

On Monday, June 5, 1950, the last day of its 1949-50 term, the Supreme Court of the United States announced its judgments and released written opinions in seventeen cases.  The Court then began its summer recess.  The public, beginning with the daily press, struggled to read and absorb such a quantity of Court decisions.

A week later, the Washington Post editorialized against what it called the Supreme Court’s end-of-term practice of “Judicial Dumping”:

Our courts have been notoriously backward in their public relations, and in none of them is this failing more conspicuous than in the Supreme Court of the United States.  Last week, for example, that high tribunal dumped 18 [sic] opinions into the lap of bewildered newspaper and radio reporters.  Some of these opinions were of great importance….  It was utterly impossible for the newsmen to read and digest so many opinions in so few hours, and if they could have done so most newspapers would have had great difficulty in giving adequate coverage to so large an output.

Such a heavy accumulation of cases usually occurs only at the end of the term.  But that is serious enough, for the justices have a habit of putting off until the last opinion day some of the most troublesome and important cases.  The result is that some momentous decisions go almost unnoticed by the public.  Perhaps it is of no concern to the court whether its output is properly communicated to the people.  Yet we do not see how any body in a democratic land could take such an attitude, and this seems to apply especially to the Supreme Court, which, lacking both purse and sword, is dependent upon the acceptance of its rulings by public opinion.

Even at the cost of some inconvenience to itself, we should think the court would abandon its dumping practice and regulate the flow of its opinions to the public more evenly.  It is difficult to see how any harm could be done by such a policy, and it would certainly facilitate understanding of the court and its opinions on the part of the public.

When the next Supreme Court term began in October 1950, the Post continued to make this argument.  Chalmers M. Roberts, a legendary Post reporter, privately surveyed his Supreme Court press corps colleagues and then reported their unanimous view that the Court should assist press and public understanding by “spreading the opinions over the entire week instead of dumping them all on Monday.”

The Supreme Court has, over time, to some degree, listened.  It now hands down decisions on multiple days of some weeks, especially toward the end of its term.  In the current month, for example, as this Court term headed to its end, the Justices announced decisions on six separate days, including three days last week.

But some Court work, like all human work, gets done against a final deadline, even if it is one that is self-imposed.  Each Court term will have a final “opinion day.”  And sometimes, such as today, it will be a Monday.

The Supreme Court today completed its scheduled work for the 2016-17 term.  It announced judgments and released opinions in three cases that had been argued in April.  It also vacated the lower court judgment in another case and sent it back for reconsideration in light of a major Court decision (Ziglar v. Abbasi—see below) that was announced last week.  The Court put two other cases, in which it had heard oral arguments last winter as an eight-justice Court, before Justice Gorsuch’s appointment, over for reargument next Fall.  And in two cases challenging President Trump’s “travel ban” executive order, the Court granted in part and denied in part the President’s request to stay lower court orders enjoining the executive order, and it ordered the parties to file briefs on a schedule that will permit the Court to hear oral arguments in the cases next October.

That is—today’s decisions are—a lot to digest.  As the justices prepare to relax, work on cases ahead, travel, and teach during their summer recess, the rest of us will work to catch up.  (For the decisions of the just-completed term, click here, and for orders, including some accompanied by opinions, click here.)

The Supreme Court’s latest decisions include many of legal significance and general public interest.  For students of Justice Robert H. Jackson’s career, one recent decision to note is Ziglar v. Abbasi (click here), where the Court, by a vote of 4-2, dismissed claims against federal officials who were accused of responsibility for the severe mistreatment of Middle Eastern men who were in the U.S. illegally at the time of the 9/11 attacks and were detained for immigration violations.  In his Ziglar v. Abbasi dissenting opinion, Justice Stephen Breyer, joined by Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, quoted two of Justice Jackson’s most striking and enduring metaphors, and cautions:  that the Constitution should not be misinterpreted as a “suicide pact” (from Jackson’s dissenting opinion in Terminiello v. United States (1949)), and that mistakenly broad views of executive power under the Constitution can lie about “like a loaded weapon”…. (from Jackson’s dissent in Korematsu v. United States (1944)).

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This post was emailed to the Jackson List, a private but entirely non-selective email list that reaches many thousands of subscribers around the world. I write to it periodically about Justice Robert H. Jackson, the Supreme Court, Nuremberg and related topics. The Jackson List archive site is http://thejacksonlist.com/.  To subscribe, email me at barrettj@stjohns.edu. Thank you for your interest, and for spreading the word.

Jackson List:  Commencement, and Cowslip, Season

For the Jackson List:

Robert H. Jackson’s deep ties to Jamestown, New York, the city he came to call his adult hometown, began in 1909.  That June, Jackson, age seventeen, graduated as valedictorian from the high school in Frewsburg, New York.  He lived—he had grown up—in that small, rural hamlet with his parents and two younger sisters.  Frewsburg is located six miles southeast of Jamestown, and it drew Jackson to its opportunities.

In Fall 1909, Robert Jackson began to commute from Frewsburg to Jamestown by streetcar.  He enrolled as a post-graduate student at Jamestown High School—it was, for him, a second senior year of high school.  At JHS, Jackson found some very strong and special teachers (who of course deserve credit for finding him).  They took deep interests in cultivating his talents and, in effect, devising tutorial programs for his special studies in literature, history, and economics.

One of Jackson’s two crucial, life-launching teachers at Jamestown High School was Miss Mary R. Willard, age 53, who taught English.  She lived near the school with her sister Miss Vesta Willard, age 47, who was a teacher at the elementary school.

Robert Jackson soon became the Willard sisters’ shared protégé.  He became, after school and often long into the evening, a member of their literary reading groups, their music listening groups, and their discussions with each other and many friends in the community.  He became a colleague in their environmental activism, including their fundraising to acquire for Jamestown, as a public preserve, a wild and beautiful “100 Acre Lot” on the edge of town.  In time, Robert became a regular dinner guest and sometimes an overnight guest in the Willard home, which the sisters nicknamed “Bohemia.”  To Jackson, then and for the rest of their lives, the Willard sisters were family—in effect, they were his second and third mothers.

Following Jackson’s June 1910 graduation from Jamestown High School, he did not go to college.  Instead, he stayed in Jamestown and became an apprentice to two very talented lawyers, Frank H. Mott and Benjamin S. Dean, who also were politically active, and literary, and friends of the Willards and other Jamestown leaders.

In Fall 1911, following Jackson’s year as a law office apprentice, these mentors persuaded him to go to a law school for a year of classroom learning and book study.  He chose Albany Law School because it was located in the New York State capital, because it was a leading and venerable independent law school, because it awarded law degrees after only two years of study, and because it would give him credit for his apprentice year—it admitted Jackson as, in effect, a transfer student into the “senior” class of 1912.

At Albany Law School during 1911-1912, Jackson worked hard and excelled.  By springtime, he wrote to the Willards, on the opposite side of New York State, that he soon would be graduating, and then returning to Jamestown for another year of apprenticeship, until he turned twenty-one and would become eligible to take the New York bar examination.

Vesta Willard responded by sending Jackson a notecard printed with a poem:

Congratulations

The world and I to you extend

Heartfelt Congratulations

May fortune’s favors have no end

Exceeding all your expectations

 

On the other side of the card, Vesta penned this note:

Tuesday Morning, May 7 [1912]

Dearest Bobbie – So you’re going to GRADUATE!  (See other side)

Probably you’ll see Bohemia in about a

month and then we’ll have a “Halleluyah Windup”

which will be merely the beginning of things.

Harry [a friend] and I “did” the hundred acre lot last

Saturday afternoon, and brought home all the

flowers we could carry, and incidentally, a

basket of cowslip greens.  These we immediately

“looked over” and cooked for supper.  Marywog [Mary Willard] was

too tired to go with us but she enjoyed the greens.

[Another friend] made us a visit Sunday night, but

he came too late (8:45) to catch Marywog.  She had

“turned in.”  So it was “up to me” until 11 P.M.

I rose to the occasion and listened attentively and

with a most misleading show of interest.

I’m “holding down” the [school] Study Hall just now but they [the students] are

“under control” and I wish this card was longer—I feel talkative.

The fifth chicken on the Easter card [apparently a previous mailing]

is merely the shadow of the Good Times coming.

Do try to be good —  Yours – V.W.

So what are cowslip greens?  As Vesta Willard knew, they were one of Robert Jackson’s very favorite foods.  Cowslip, or Primula Veris (“truly spring”), is an herb.  It is used for healing and cooking.  It usually grows, as its Latin name suggests, in the springtime, blooming from April to June.  Cowslip is native to Europe and Asia but in the United States it grows wild in fields and meadows.  Cowslip flower petals are used in pudding, creams, tea, jam, and wine.  The Willards seem to have liked cooked—I assume boiled—cowslip leaves as a supper vegetable.  Fresh, young cowslip leaves, which have a sweet but bland taste, also can be eaten as a green, or in salads, or—Jackson’s preference—in sandwiches.

In this season of commencements, I hope that you and yours have chances to celebrate the academic accomplishments of people you’ve raised or taught or otherwise love, and to find and eat some favorite foods, and then to keep on celebrating.  Indeed, if it’s your style, have a great “Halleluyah Windup”!

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This post was emailed to the Jackson List, a private but entirely non-selective email list that reaches many thousands of subscribers around the world. I write to it periodically about Justice Robert H. Jackson, the Supreme Court, Nuremberg and related topics. The Jackson List archive site is http://thejacksonlist.com/.  To subscribe, email me at barrettj@stjohns.edu. Thank you for your interest, and for spreading the word.

Jackson List: Lawful, Political, Deplorable Senatorial Behavior (1954)

This post, edited a little bit and enhanced with footnotes and photographs of John M. Harlan and the Supreme Court in 1955, now is on the Jackson List archive site in PDF file form.

Jackson List: Alma Soller McLay (1920-2017), Nuremberger

This post, including two December 1945 photographs of Alma Soller in Nuremberg, now is on the Jackson List archive site in PDF file form.

Jackson List: Judge Gorsuch’s Admiration for Justice Jackson’s Writing … and Justice White, Dubitante

 

This post, edited a little bit and enhanced with a couple of citation footnotes and a *great* 1946 photograph of Byron White as a U.S. Supreme Court law clerk, now is on the Jackson List archive site in PDF file form.

Jackson List: 125th Birthday

Tomorrow, February 13, 2017, will mark the quasquicentennial of Robert Houghwout Jackson’s 1892 birth, in his family’s farmhouse in Spring Creek Township, Warren County, Pennsylvania.

For your Jackson Birthday reading, here are some previous Jackson Birthday-related posts:

These and many more posts are on the Jackson List archive site, which is word-searchable and, using quotation marks, phrase-searchable:  http://thejacksonlist.com/.

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This post was emailed to the Jackson List, a private but entirely non-selective email list that reaches many thousands of subscribers around the world. I write to it periodically about Justice Robert H. Jackson, the Supreme Court, Nuremberg and related topics. The Jackson List archive site is http://thejacksonlist.com/.  To subscribe, email me at barrettj@stjohns.edu. Thank you for your interest, and for spreading the word.

Jackson List: Inaugurations and Change (1949 & 1953)

On the morning of January 20, 1949, Justice Robert H. Jackson and his wife Irene drove in to Washington from their Hickory Hill home in McLean, Virginia.

At the Supreme Court building, they met their friends Floyd Odlum and Jacqueline Cochran (a businessman and a famous aviatrix and businesswoman, respectively), who were visiting from California.  Later, they crossed First Street, Northeast, to the U.S. Capitol.  They sat – separately, Jackson with fellow justices, Irene with Floyd and Jackie – in V.I.P. seats and watched the inauguration of President Harry S. Truman.  Justice Jackson wore a small black cap, custom-made, from Livingston’s, a store in downtown Washington.

In Chicago, a young woman named Betty Stevens was one of many who watched the 1949 presidential inauguration ceremony on television.  She was especially pleased to see two Supreme Court justices, Jackson and Wiley Rutledge, “walking along gaily chatting.”  Her husband, Chicago attorney John Paul Stevens, had clerked for Justice Rutledge a year earlier, and Mrs. Stevens was happy to see that he appeared to “be in excellent health and spirits.”

Nearly four years later, General (ret.) Dwight D. Eisenhower was elected to succeed President Truman.  He, a Republican, would become president after twenty years of presidents (Franklin D. Roosevelt, and then Truman) from the Democratic Party.

In late 1952, Jackie Cochran wrote to her friend Bob Jackson.  She asked if she and Floyd could be Jackson’s guests at the impending Eisenhower presidential inauguration.

Jackson, after checking, wrote back to her in late December 1952:

Dear Jackie:

I have inquired of the Marshal [of the Supreme Court] and so far as I can learn we can carry out this year the same program that we did at the last inauguration – which was that you and Floyd came to the Court and we went from here together.  I think that will work out this time, although it may be something different.  You know the slogan, “It’s time for a change,” and they do have to provide this year for two Cabinets and two sets of officers, incoming and outgoing, and two Presidents’ parties, whereas before there was only one.

The Inauguration Day, January 20, 1953, was indeed different.  On that Tuesday morning, the Supreme Court had an official session.  The justices took the bench and admitted attorneys to the Supreme Court bar.  The Court then adjourned to attend, as it had four years earlier, the inauguration as a body.

At the oath-taking ceremony, the Justices, all bare-headed, walked in procession from the Capitol rotunda to the platform, in pairs according to their seniority on the Court.  Justice Jackson walked with Justice William O. Douglas, smiling and talking.

Later that afternoon, the justices returned to the Court and reconvened briefly in official session.  They did not hear oral argument in any of the ten cases they had, the previous day, put on call for January 20th.  They sent “home” the attorneys who were assembled and prepared to argue those cases, putting them over until the next day.

It appears that Jackson was able to arrange for Floyd Odlum and Jackie Cochran to attend President Eisenhower’s 1953 inauguration.

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This post was emailed to the Jackson List, a private but entirely non-selective email list that reaches many thousands of subscribers around the world. I write to it periodically about Justice Robert H. Jackson, the Supreme Court, Nuremberg and related topics. The Jackson List archive site is http://thejacksonlist.com/.  To subscribe, email me at barrettj@stjohns.edu. Thank you for your interest, and for spreading the word.

Jackson List:  Departed Friends, Remembered

The events of 2016 included, sadly, departures of special friends.  The five who are highlighted here were connected directly to the life, work, and major legacies of Justice Robert H. Jackson.  These people had great smarts, class, and charm.  Their lives were filled with selfless accomplishments.  Luckily, they have left us with powerful examples, including in various filmed moments.  They were:

  • Judith S. Kaye, Chief Judge of the New York Court of Appeals, Chief Judge of the State of New York, and a member of the Robert H. Jackson Center board—click here for Chief Judge Kaye, in 2001, speaking at Chautauqua Institution;
  • Bennett Boskey, a law clerk to, successively, Judge Learned Hand, Justice Stanley Reed, and Chief Justice Harlan Fiske Stone, and later a leading Washington, D.C., lawyer and legal profession giant, including in the councils of the American Law Institute—click here for Boskey, in 2006, on Stone;
  • Phil Neal, Justice Jackson’s law clerk during 1943-45 and, later, a law professor at Stanford University, law school dean at the University of Chicago, and a leading Chicago lawyer—click here for Neal, in 2002, on Jackson;
  • Gwendoline Heron Niebergall, a native of the United Kingdom, whose post-World War II work took her to Nuremberg, to service on Justice Jackson’s Office of Chief of Counsel prosecution staff there, and to, among other things, presence in the center of one of history’s famous photographs—click here for Niebergall, in 2010, on Nuremberg; and
  • Barrett Prettyman, Jr., Justice Jackson’s law clerk at the Supreme Court of the United States during 1953-54—Jackson’s final law clerk—and, later, a leading lawyer in Washington, a premier advocate before the Supreme Court, and a Jackson Center board member—click here for Prettyman, in 2012, on his heroes.

Memories of these people are treasures, for the year ahead and much, much longer.

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This post was emailed to the Jackson List, a private but entirely non-selective email list that reaches many thousands of subscribers around the world. I write to it periodically about Justice Robert H. Jackson, the Supreme Court, Nuremberg and related topics. The Jackson List archive site is http://thejacksonlist.com/.  To subscribe, email me at barrettj@stjohns.edu. Thank you for your interest, and for spreading the word.

 

Jackson List: An Invitation to Join in Thanksgiving (1941)

In war-besieged London in September 1940, Harold Laski, a professor at the London School of Economics and a leading Socialist party official, thinker, and writer, penned a letter to Robert H. Jackson, Attorney General of the United States.  Laski knew Jackson through their mutual friend, U.S. Supreme Court justice Felix Frankfurter.  Laski wrote Jackson to introduce another friend, Professor Hersch Lauterpacht of the University of Cambridge:

15.ix.40

My dear Jackson,

I should like to introduce to you my

friend Professor H. Lauterpacht, the Whewell

Professor of International Law at Cambridge.

You well know of his outstanding work in

his own field.  I should like only to add

that there are few people for whom I care so

much.

I think we stand up well to our siege; and

we have complete confidence in the outcome.

Few things will help so much as a third term [for President Franklin D. Roosevelt].

                                    Yours very sincerely,

                                    Harold J. Laski

The Hon. Robert Jackson.

     Attorney-General’s Office.

          Washington. D.C.

Laski wrote his letter not to be mailed, but for Lauterpacht, who was spending Fall 1940 in the U.S., to use when he had an opportunity to introduce himself to Jackson.

That moment arrived at the end of the year.  On December 23rd, Lauterpacht, living in the Bronx, wrote to Jackson in Washington to request a meeting:

            Trinity College,

               Cambridge.

              [crossed out]

                                    5444 Arlington

                                                Avenue

                                    Riverdale on Hudson

                                         New York City

Dear Mr. Attorney-General,

I hope to be in Washington

between January 6-9, prior to my

departure for England.  If you

can spare the time, I should

very much appreciate an oppor-

tunity of calling on you

and paying my respects.

            I enclose a letter of introduction

from Professor Laski.

                                    Yours very truly,

                                    H. Lauterpacht

The Hon. Robert Jackson.

     Attorney-General’s Office.

          Washington. D.C.

Lauterpacht’s letter, with the enclosed vouching letter from Laski, worked.  Jackson wrote back promptly, telling Lauterpacht to contact Jackson’s secretary to schedule the meeting.

Robert Jackson and Hersch Lauterpacht met at the U.S. Department of Justice on January 8, 1941.  They discussed Nazi Germany’s bombing attacks on the United Kingdom, U.S. military assistance to the U.K., and domestic and international law issues.  And obviously they hit it off.

Over the next week, Lauterpacht stayed in downtown Washington and, at Jackson’s request, wrote him a thorough memorandum on international law issues.  It addressed, in twenty-one pages, what Jackson had described in their first meeting as “the philosophy, in international law, of the policy of aiding the [anti-Nazi U.S.] Allies by all means short of war.”  Lauterpacht sent the memorandum to Jackson on January 15th, and then they met the next day to discuss it.

Lauterpacht argued, then and later, that Nazi Germany’s military aggression, on the European continent and against the U.K., violated international law embodied in its own and in many nations’ treaty commitments.  These arguments fit with and advanced Jackson’s own legal thinking.  In the months ahead, Lauterpacht’s input contributed to some of Attorney General Jackson’s and then Justice Jackson’s—he joined the U.S. Supreme Court in July 1941—major public addresses attacking Nazi lawlessness.

And more than four years later, in circumstances that neither Jackson nor Lauterpacht could have envisioned when they first met in Washington, they worked together, in the U.K. and then in Nuremberg in the Allied-occupied former Germany, to hold Nazi leaders accountable for their illegal war-waging.

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Justice Jackson and Professor Lauterpacht corresponded during the World War II years.  They also saw each other occasionally, when Lauterpacht was visiting the U.S.

One such occasion was November 19, 1941, seventy-five years ago, when Lauterpacht visited Justice Jackson at the Supreme Court.  Jackson asked Lauterpacht to stay over in Washington on that Wednesday night, and to join Jackson and his wife Irene the next day for Thanksgiving dinner at their home, Hickory Hill, in McLean, Virginia—“It will give Mrs. Jackson and me great pleasure if you will have dinner with us,” Jackson wrote when he communicated this invitation a few days beforehand, as he and Lauterpacht were finalizing their plans.

Alas, and to Lauterpacht’s regret, he could not accept this invitation.

He and Jackson did have later occasions to share meals, and to give thanks, including in Nuremberg.

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This post was emailed to the Jackson List, a private but entirely non-selective email list that reaches many thousands of subscribers around the world. I write to it periodically about Justice Robert H. Jackson, the Supreme Court, Nuremberg and related topics. The Jackson List archive site is http://thejacksonlist.com/.  To subscribe, email me at barrettj@stjohns.edu. Thank you for your interest, and for spreading the word.