Tag Archives: law clerk

Jackson List: Justices & the World Series

For the Jackson List:

United States Supreme Court Justice John Paul Stevens, a Chicago native, has been rooting for the Chicago Cubs almost since they last won a World Series—that was in 1908, just twelve years before Stevens was born.

As Justice Stevens explained in a great interview posted on SCOTUSblog this morning (click here), he has seen many Cubs baseball games in Wrigley Field.  On October 1, 1932, for example, he attended the third game of that year’s World Series and witnessed Babe Ruth’s famous “called shot” home run … and thus saw the New York Yankees beat the Cubs, 7-5, on their way to sweeping that World Series.

On that day in 1932, a man named James M. Marsh, age nineteen, was listening to that game on the radio in western Pennsylvania and keeping score in his scorebook.  Fifteen years later, Jim Marsh was clerking for Justice Robert H. Jackson at the Supreme Court.  Marsh became a close friend of John Stevens, who was clerking then for Justice Wiley Rutledge.  Marsh learned of Stevens’s love for the Cubs, and that he had seen Babe Ruth hit the called shot.  In time, Marsh located his 1932 scorecard and gave it to Stevens.  Justice Stevens then displayed it on the wall of his Supreme Court chambers.

In contrast to Stevens and Marsh (and many of us), Justice Robert H. Jackson was no baseball fan.  In 1951, for example, when Major League Baseball had leadership troubles and Jackson was reported to be under consideration to become its next commissioner, he found the idea distasteful.

In summer 1950, as Jackson was preparing to take a cross-country train trip with his friend Harrison Tweed, a leading New York City lawyer, and he wrote Jackson to suggest that they see a baseball game on a layover day in Chicago, Jackson wrote back immediately, voting no:

Personally, I don’t care much about baseball and haven’t seen a game in a good many years.  Why don’t we take our chances on what we can do during the day[?]  Maybe some good friend like [Chicago lawyer] Tap Gregory will come to our rescue.  I may get in touch with him.

Two summers early, indeed while Jim Marsh was beginning his second year as Jackson’s law clerk, Jackson commented privately, and not approvingly, that Babe Ruth’s death had garnered more news attention than had the death of Tweed’s law partner Walter Hope.  (Really.)

But Justice Jackson did have a near-brush with the Chicago Cubs, and, indeed, with the Cubs in the World Series.  In early October 1945, beginning on the 6th of the month, Jackson was working in Berlin, in preparation for the impending prosecution of Nazi war criminals that he would be leading in Nuremberg.  Jackson kept busy during the next four days with numerous meetings, some social occasions, and his own work.  But really he was waiting for U.S. and other nations’ judges to arrive in Berlin so that the International Military Tribunal could hold its first session there (in the Soviet zone of military occupation), formally receiving the prosecutors’ indictment of the defendants, before adjourning to Nuremberg (in the U.S. zone) to conduct the trial.

By October 10, 1945, Jackson, knowing that he had much work to do in Nuremberg, was fed up with waiting around in Berlin.  He left two of his deputies to continue the work there.  Jackson had command of a military plane, and he ordered it to fly him and some of his team that evening to Nuremberg.

During the flight, Justice Jackson stayed in his seating area on the plane, I am sure.  But others, including his son and executive assistant Bill Jackson, crowded around the cockpit.  They managed to listen there to a radio broadcast of the final game of the World Series, which was being played in Wrigley Field.  (Alas for Cubs fans such as then-first year law student John Paul Stevens, just back in Chicago and civilian life after four years of wartime service in the U.S. Navy, the Detroit Tigers won that World Series game seven, beating the Chicago Cubs, 9-3, and thus the Series.)

In 2016, the long wait of Justice Stevens and all Cubs fans for a World Series championship is compelling.

It bears at least passing note, however, that another Justice, Harold H. Burton (1888-1964), would be rooting the other way.  Justice Burton was colleague of Justice Jackson and Justice Rutledge on the Court, and Burton was everyone’s model of judicial diligence and fairness.  Harold Burton had served as Mayor of Cleveland, Ohio, from 1935 until 1940.  He then became a U.S. Senator from Ohio, serving from 1941 until he resigned following his appointment to the Supreme Court.

Justice Burton was commissioned a Supreme Court justice on September 22, 1945.

That autumn, seventy-one years ago, was only three years before the Cleveland Indians, the Cubs’ opponent this year, won their most recent World Series.

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This post was emailed to the Jackson List, a private but entirely non-selective email list that reaches many thousands of subscribers around the world. I write to it periodically about Justice Robert H. Jackson, the Supreme Court, Nuremberg and related topics. The Jackson List archive site is http://thejacksonlist.com/.  To subscribe, email me at barrettj@stjohns.edu. Thank you for your interest, and for spreading the word.

Jackson List: Phil C. Neal (1919-2016), Jackson Law Clerk

For the Jackson List:

In August 1940, United States Attorney General Robert H. Jackson appointed a new graduate of Harvard Law School, John F. Costelloe, to serve as a junior attorney in the U.S. Department of Justice’s Claims Division (today, the Civil Division).

A year later, shortly after Jackson had been appointed an Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, he hired John Costelloe to be his first law clerk.  Costelloe’s work was superb and Jackson liked him a lot—he asked him to stay for a second year and, as it neared its conclusion, he mentioned to Costelloe that he could stay for a third… only to learn that he wished to move on to law practice.

So Justice Jackson mentioned to his son William, then a second year student at Harvard Law School and a member of the Harvard Law Review staff, that he would be needing a new law clerk starting that summer.

Bill Jackson went into action.  After speaking to the current Law Review president about his potential interest in clerking for the Justice, Bill wrote this letter to his father:

Dear Dad –                                          PHIL NEAL

                                                (for legibility’s sake)

             I have just talked to Phil Neal,

present head of the Bugle, and he is

interested in clerking for you.  The hitch is

that he goes before the Draft doctors on

the 20th [of the month, probably March 1943], but inasmuch as he has a bad

heart too (had rheumatic fever last year),

it seems probable he will be rejected.

            His marks are of course tops.  He

works like a stevedore.  His political-social

views are “liberal.”  He has personal charm

and is easy to work with.  In short, I

think he is a find.

            He will, however, be unavailable until

around October 1, when he graduates.  If you

need someone before that, perhaps he is out.

But there is nobody any good up here who will

be through before October.

            I suggested that if he were turned

down [at his military physical on] the 20th, he drop down for a talk

with you.  It might be nice if I asked

him to stay overnight at the house.  At

any rate, I told him I thought he would

probably hear from you about it, and I

suggest you write him a note at the Law

Review office.  – He’s a good man.

Wednesday                                          WEJ

 Phil Neal did flunk his U.S. Army physical, and he also heard from Justice Jackson.  At his invitation, Phil travelled to Washington, Jackson interviewed him, he liked him, and he quickly hired him to be his law clerk for the next year.

Phil Neal graduated from Harvard Law School at the start of October 1943.  He then, a week or so later, took the Illinois (his home state) bar examination, despite not having time to study for it or to take a bar review course.

It was Justice Jackson who insisted that Phil Neal take the bar then, before he started clerking.  Jackson explained that he was looking out for Phil’s later career (and apparently Jackson was not considering that Neal might flunk the bar—but he passed).  Jackson described how in 1936 President Roosevelt could not appoint Jackson’s excellent Treasury Department Revenue Bureau deputy counsel to succeed him as counsel when the President appointed Jackson to serve in DOJ because the deputy, always busy with his government work, had never gotten around to taking the bar.

*          *          *

By mid-October 1943, Phil Neal was working for Justice Jackson.  Phil served as Jackson’s law clerk for almost two years—during the first year, Jackson asked Phil to stay on for a second year and he accepted.  They got along well.  Jackson had high regard for Phil, and he liked and admired the Justice.

During Phil Neal’s clerkship years, between Fall 1943 and Spring 1945, he reviewed many petitions seeking Supreme Court review of lower court decisions and wrote short memoranda to Jackson, each summarizing a petition and advising Jackson to vote to grant or to deny review.

Phil Neal also advised Jackson on numerous major cases that the Court was deciding, and on opinions that Jackson had drafted.  These included:

  • Jackson’s dissenting opinion in Federal Power Commission v. Hope Natural Gas Co. (1944) (regarding the agency’s statutory authority to set gas prices);
  • Jackson’s opinion for the Court in Pollock v. Williams (1944) (holding that a Florida law criminalizing failure to work after receiving an advance payment violated the Thirteenth Amendment and the federal anti-peonage law);
  • Jackson’s dissenting opinion in Korematsu v. United States (1944) (arguing that criminalization of a Japanese-American’s violation of a military order excluding him from the West Coast was unconstitutional racial discrimination); and
  • Jackson’s opinion for the Court in Cramer v. United States (1945) (reversing treason convictions).

*          *          *

In March 1945, Phil Neal left his clerkship suddenly and “early.”  His departure began when Justice Felix Frankfurter popped into Phil’s office one day, as he often did on his way to visiting Jackson.  “What are you going to do next year?,” Frankfurter asked.  Phil replied that he had not been in the war, and was thinking that maybe he could “get in the peace end.”

Frankfurter promptly took Phil by the elbow to Frankfurter’s chambers, called his friend Alger Hiss of the U.S. Department of State, and told him about Phil Neal.  Hiss then was working at Dumbarton Oaks, heading up U.S. preparations for the imminent San Francisco conference that would create the United Nations.  Hiss and Neal then met, and Hiss—himself a former Supreme Court law clerk, to Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.—hired Neal on the condition that he could free himself from Supreme Court work.

Phil Neal promptly contacted Murray Gartner, a Harvard Law School mate whom Jackson already had hired to succeed Phil, beginning a few months hence.  Phil explained the situation and ascertained that Murray could start the job immediately.  Phil then presented the scenario to Jackson and asked to leave his clerkship.  Jackson, liking Phil, feeling covered by Murray Gartner’s availability, and understanding the attraction the State Department opportunity had for Phil, said yes.

Indeed, just a few weeks later, when President Truman contacted Jackson and asked him to take on a post-war legal assignment, to negotiate and then to lead the international criminal prosecution of the surviving Nazi leaders…  Well, Jackson in a sense followed Phil Neal’s lead—he also left the Supreme Court, if in his case only temporarily, to work on global legal challenges, for what became his year-plus as U.S. chief prosecutor at Nuremberg.

Interestingly, when Phil Neal applied to take the California bar later that year and the bar examiners inquired of Jackson about Neal’s previous employment and character, Jackson’s enthusiastic reply, cabled back to the U.S. from Nuremberg, said that Phil Neal “is not on this [Nuremberg trial] mission only because I released him to [the] State Department at [the] time of [the] San Francisco conference.”

*          *          *

During Spring and Summer 1945, Phil Neal worked for the State Department, first in Washington and then in San Francisco.  As a member of the State secretariat staff, he worked on the establishment of the United Nations, and particularly on the International Court of Justice provisions in the draft U.N. Charter.

After leaving government work and passing his second bar examination, Phil Neal stayed to live in San Francisco.  He became an associate at Pillsbury, Madison & Sutro.  In 1948, he became an associate professor at Stanford Law School.  In 1952, he became a professor.  His courses included Administrative Law, Agency, Bills & Notes, and Constitutional Law.

Throughout these years, Justice Jackson and Phil Neal stayed in occasional contact and saw each other when geography permitted.  One instance was August 1951, when Robert Jackson and his wife Irene, vacationing northern California, visited Phil Neal and his wife at their home in Los Altos.  Phil asked Jackson if he would interview Phil’s top student, a World War II veteran from Wisconsin named William H. Rehnquist, for a possible clerkship.  Jackson said yes, they went over to the Stanford campus, and the meeting occurred in Phil’s office.  Jackson liked Bill Rehnquist and, a few months later, as he was about to graduate, Jackson hired him.  Rehnquist was one of Jackson’s two law clerks during 1952-53.  (Two decades later, of course, Rehnquist returned to work at the Supreme Court as a justice.)

While at Stanford, Phil Neal, in addition to devoting himself to teaching and scholarship, stayed involved, sometimes behind the scenes, in major legal matters.  In the early 1950s, for example, he assisted Thurgood Marshall and his NAACP legal team as they prepared for oral arguments before the Supreme Court in Brown v. Board of Education and its companion cases challenging the constitutionality of racial segregation in public schools.  In May 1954, just after Brown was decided (unanimously, including by Justice Jackson), William T. Coleman, a NAACP junior lawyer and Phil Neal friend, wrote to Phil to thank him for his assistance.  Phil’s reply first stated his embarrassment to be thanked for anything.  He then stated his fundamental faith in lawyers and their work:

You surely deserve to be congratulated on your momentous victory.  Some may think the result merely the inevitable course of history—or pure politics, as some choose to believe—but I’m sure that you and your colleagues could show that it came at this moment and in the form it took because of years of able planning and advocacy by lawyers.

Related, one of the U.S. Supreme Court cases that Phil Neal later argued and won was a 1986 case, Pasadena City Board of Education v. Spangler, a class action challenging the constitutionality of racial segregation in a California high school system.

img_3510-cropped

1958, L-R:  Phil Neal (Stanford), Charles Fairman (Harvard), Julius Goebel (Columbia), L. Quincy Mumford (Librarian of Congress) and Paul Freund (Harvard).

*          *          *

In 1962, Phil Neal, after thirteen years on the Stanford law faculty, became a professor at the University of Chicago Law School.  The next year, he was appointed Dean.  He succeeded Edward H. Levi, who after twelve years as dean had become University provost—and who in 1975 would become U.S. Attorney General.

Phil Neal served as the Dean of the University of Chicago Law School, one of the nation’s great law schools, and one that rose in strength under his leadership, from 1962 until 1975.  While serving as Dean, Phil also served as executive secretary of the Coordinating Committee of the U.S. Federal Courts, charged with administering the massive volume of electrical equipment antitrust cases, and in that capacity he drafted the statute creating the Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation.  He also served as Chairman of the White House Task Force on the Antitrust Laws, appointed by President Lyndon Johnson.

After Phil Neal in 1975 completed twelve years as Chicago’s law dean, he remained on the faculty, teaching courses in Antitrust (sometimes co-teaching with a leading economist), Constitutional Law, Elements of the Law, and Legal Ethics, and a Supreme Court seminar that sometimes met in his home.  He also practiced law as Of Counsel with Friedman & Koven, a Chicago firm.

In the 1980s, when Phil Neal was in his sixties and academic institutions still could legally mandate faculty retirements because higher education was exempted from the federal law barring age discrimination in employment, he retired, at least formally, becoming a professor emeritus.

Phil Neal, in full health and energy, and at his core a brilliant lawyer who loved his profession, then continued, and increased, his law practice.  In 1986, with thirty-four other lawyers, he founded Neal, Gerber & Eisenberg.  Today the firm has well over one hundred lawyers.  Phil helped to build the firm and practiced there very actively for decades, focusing on trial and appellate litigation in business law areas including antitrust, securities, bankruptcy and corporate law.  He served on the firm’s executive committee until recently.

20161022_153522-cropped

October 2002:  Phil Neal in Venice, Italy.

*          *          *

Phil Caldwell Neal’s extraordinary life ended last month. I was very lucky to know him, and to learn much from him about Robert H. Jackson—Phil savored his memories of Justice Jackson, admired him greatly, and regarded him as a very important life influence.

My even greater fortune, shared with many thousands, was to learn from Phil Neal about greatness in all the ways that he was.  He was dauntingly smart.  He was a stickler for clarity, in analysis, in writing, and in speech.  He was reflective—he could seem even taciturn at times, but that was because his wheels turned so fast, and sometimes they were grinding up weak ideas that had been presented to him.  He held himself and others to very high standards.  He had humility, decency, and humanity—he was, at his core, kindly.  And he believed deeply in the rule of law, and in the legal profession as a force for good.  In all of these ways, he was a leader, a motivator, a guide, a teacher.

And he did quite well, by the way, with a U.S. Army-certified bad heart.

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July 3, 2016:  Phil Neal at his home in Sawyer, Michigan.

*          *          *

Some links—

  • Phil Neal, speaking at Albany Law School in November 2004 about Justice Jackson—click here for video;
  • Phil Neal, at a dinner at Chautauqua Institution in 2002 following a former Jackson law clerks’ roundtable at the Robert H. Jackson Center, telling a story about his first name—Phil, not Philip—and an exchange he once had with Justice Tom C. Clark—click here for video (and skip ahead to the 4:00 mark, after my introduction of Phil, for his story);
  • Neal, Gerber & Eisenberg’s announcement of Phil Neal’s death—click here;
  • The University of Chicago’s announcement—click here;
  • An announcement published in the Chicago Tribuneclick here; and
  • An obituary from Phil’s neighborhood paper, the Hyde Park Heraldclick here.

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This post was emailed to the Jackson List, a private but entirely non-selective email list that reaches many thousands of subscribers around the world. I write to it periodically about Justice Robert H. Jackson, the Supreme Court, Nuremberg and related topics. The Jackson List archive site is http://thejacksonlist.com/.  To subscribe, email me at barrettj@stjohns.edu. Thank you for your interest, and for spreading the word.

Robert B. von Mehren (1922-2016)

Robert Brandt von Mehren, one of New York’s and the nation’s leading lawyers, especially in the field of arbitration, died on May 5th at age 93.  He was a retired partner in the Debevoise & Plimpton law firm, a Manhattan and Martha’s Vineyard resident, and a man of brilliance and, I found, charm and kindness.

In recent years, I spoke and emailed a few times with Mr. von Mehren as I was researching and writing an essay, “No College, No Prior Clerkship,” on James M. Marsh, Justice Robert H. Jackson’s 1947-1949 law clerk at the U.S. Supreme Court.  (Click here for an abstract of the essay, and click here to buy the new book, Of Courtiers and Kings: More Stories of Supreme Court Law Clerks and Their Justices, in which my essay appears along with many strong pieces and a range of fascinating material.)

I contacted Mr. von Mehren because he was a cameo player in the process by which Justice Jackson hired Jim Marsh.

In 1946, von Mehren was clerking for Judge Learned Hand at the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit.  Prior to that, as a Harvard Law School student, von Mehren compiled a tremendous academic record, including serving as president of the Harvard Law Review.  Unbeknownst to von Mehren, someone—probably Jackson’s incumbent law clerk, Murray Gartner, himself a former Harvard Law Review president—had flagged von Mehren for Jackson’s consideration to be Gartner’s successor as Jackson’s law clerk.  Jackson was (properly) very impressed with von Mehren’s credentials, but in the end Jackson ranked von Mehren second to Marsh and hired him.

This all was news, and interesting, to Mr. von Mehren.  He told me that he never applied to or interviewed with Jackson.

It all worked out.  Justice Stanley Reed hired von Mehren to be his law clerk in that Supreme Court year (October Term 1947).  As Reed’s clerk, von Mehren got to see Justice Jackson and all of the Justices of that era (Vinson, Black, Frankfurter, Douglas, Murphy, Rutledge and Burton were the others) in action.  And von Mehren got to know and like Jackson’s clerk, Jim Marsh.

Justice Reed law clerk Robert von Mehren O.T. 1947

Von Mehren during his clerkship

with Justice Reed

Von Mehren’s path was a notable rise from remote beginnings.  He and his identical twin brother Arthur were born in Albert Lea, a city in southern Minnesota, in August 1922.  The boys grew up fluent in English, of course, and in Danish and Norwegian (hat tip:  Daniel R. Coquillette).  (Ninety-two years later, I could hear a trace of that—Robert pronounced his name “fun-MAY-won” in a soft European accent).

In high school, Robert won a scholarship to Yale University, from which he graduated summa cum laude.  At Harvard Law School, he graduated magna cum laude.  After clerking for the great Judge Hand and for the very capable Justice Reed, he became associated with Debevoise, his professional home for most of his career.  (Luckily, because it’s more and worthy information, his law firm webpage is still “up”—click here.)

(And Arthur?  He attended Harvard University and then, with Robert, Harvard Law School.  He also earned a Harvard Ph.D. in Government, joined the Harvard Law School faculty, and became one of its giants—click here for one memorial and here for one obituary following his death in 2006.)

For more on Robert von Mehren’s accomplished and full life, click here and here.

May he rest in peace.

NYT-0002134551-VONMEHRENR_22_115728583.1_190053

What Did/Would Chief Justice Rehnquist Think of Ted Cruz?

Ted Cruz, after great success as a Harvard Law School student, became a law clerk to two federal judges.  During 1995-1996, Cruz was a clerk to Judge J. Michael Luttig of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit.  During 1996-1997, Cruz clerked at the U.S. Supreme Court for the Chief Justice, William H. Rehnquist.

rehnquisttedcruz

It’s of course Ouija Board stuff to wonder what Chief Justice Rehnquist would think today about Senator Cruz as he runs for president.  Rehnquist died in September 2005, when Cruz was the appointed Solicitor General of Texas.  He argued cases regularly, skillfully before the Rehnquist Court.  But I think that no one then was imagining Ted Cruz as a serious presidential candidate, or at least not the one that he is now in his speeches, debates and issue positions.

As a starting point, what did Chief Justice Rehnquist think about Ted Cruz as a person, in his clerkship year and thereafter?

Some might have direct knowledge, but that has not been shared.

Some indications might exist on paper or other media, but they have not surfaced.

Some who knew Rehnquist well could venture their educated guesses, but I don’t know that any has.

I knew Chief Justice Rehnquist only a little bit.  I interviewed and interacted with the Chief Justice a couple of times in 2003, when he generously met with me to discuss Justice Robert H. Jackson, whom Rehnquist had served as a Supreme Court law clerk during 1952-1953.

My guess is that the Chief Justice Rehnquist I met would not have thought well of the Ted Cruz now running for president.  Rehnquist in 2003 was too many things that Cruz seems not to be.  Rehnquist was mellow, relaxed and not judgmental.  He was reflective, including about himself as a law clerk and later.  He had some strong views, of course, but he laughed at extreme partisanship and made fun people who demonized others.  He was kindly.

I suspect that Ted Cruz knows that his candidate persona today is not the late-life Rehnquist type (and maybe that he was not a beloved Rehnquist law clerk).  The evidence is Cruz’s understanding of the Chief he does not resemble—Rehnquist was, Cruz wrote in his memoir last year (click here for an excerpt on his Rehnquist clerkship), “very much a Midwesterner.  He was polite, low-key and modest.”

Chief Justice Rehnquist loved to make small bets, including on politics.  I bet that Rehnquist wouldn’t hesitate to vote against Ted Cruz in a 2016 Republican primary.  I think that Rehnquist would agonize a bit about Jeb Bush, and then he’d vote for John Kasich.

Cornelia Groefsema Becomes a D.C. Circuit Law Clerk (1947)

Judge Cornelia Blanche Groefsema Kennedy, a giant of the federal bench, died last month at age 90 at her Michigan home.

As many have noted, Judge Kennedy was a pioneering woman in the law.  She was born in Detroit in 1923.  Her father was a lawyer and her mother sought to become one.  When Cornelia was only nine, however, her mother, then in her second year of law school, died.

As Cornelia grew up, she more than fulfilled her mother’s aspirations.  Raised by her father and an aunt, Cornelia attended Detroit public schools.  She was a top graduate from Detroit’s Redford High School.  In 1945, she became an honors graduate of the University of Michigan.  In 1947, she earned her law degree at the University of Michigan, the law school that her mother had attended.

Following law school, Cornelia Groefsema—the future Judge Kennedy—broke the first of many professional glass ceilings:  she became the first woman to serve as a law clerk at the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia (today the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit).

Cornelia’s clerkship opportunity developed in part because her sister Margaret also was a legal trailblazer.  She, like Cornelia, had served as an editor of the Michigan Law Review before graduating from Michigan Law School.

In 1945-46, Margaret Groefsema served as a law clerk to U.S. Circuit Judge Thomas F. McAllister of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit.  Judge McAllister, whose chambers were located in Grand Rapids, Michigan, was very pleased with Margaret’s work.  In 1947, he sought to hire her sister Cornelia as his law clerk.

Cornelia turned down the offer to clerk for Judge McAllister.  She was, she explained, more interested in clerking in the East.  (I believe that a relationship with a man there was part of the pull.)

Judge McAllister then assisted Cornelia Groefsema in her clerkship hunt.  Through a telephone call to the incumbent law clerk in the chambers of Justice Harold M. Stephens of the U.S. Court of Appeals in D.C., Judge McAllister learned that Judge Stephens soon would need a law clerk.  So McAllister wrote to Stephens, explaining his knowledge of Miss Groefsema and recommending her.

A few days later, Cornelia, obviously coordinating moves with Judge McAllister, mailed her letter of application and resume to Judge Stephens.  Soon thereafter, while visiting Washington, she interviewed with the Judge.

In October 1947, Judge Stephens decided to hire Cornelia Groefsema as his law clerk.  She was his sole law clerk, and excellent at the work, for the duration of the Court’s 1947-1948 term.

Some links—

Judge Kennedy will be remembered this Friday at a memorial service at her church.

Groefsema